The attitude of Amangkurat I raised a lot of resistances, the strongest of which took place in 1677 and was led by Trunojoyo. The capital town of Mataram, Plered, could be captured while Amangkurat I and his son. Amangkurat II ran away. Amangkurat I died in his refuge in Tegal.
Efforts to regain power were made by Amangkurat II by asking for assistance from VOC. As a result, Amangkurat II could drive Trunojoyo’s troops away from Plered and Trunojoyo surrendered to VOC’s troops under the command of Captain Jonker. After that, Mataram fell deeper under the control of VOC and the people were even more miserable.
Mataram Kingdom was subsequently divided into two parts by means of Giyanti Agreement in 1775, they were Yogyakarta Sultanate (Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat) that was led by Mangkubumi with the title of Sultan Hamengkubuwono I (1775-1792) and Kasunanan Surakarta (sultanate of Surakarta) which was ruled by Pakubuwono II (1749-1788).
Mataram, whose capital town was located in the inland of Java, was an agrarian country which prioritized agriculture as its main source of living. During the rule of Sultan Agung (1630-1645), efforts were made to expand agricultural fields by moving many farmers to the fertile area of Karawang.
That is why until now there are many people on the north coast of West objective of the transmigration was to provide logistic (food) for Mataram troops when they prepared to attack batavia.
The agrarian society finally produced feudalistic people. Government officials or aristocratic people were given compensation in the form of farmland or land tax. This system finally resulted in the emergence of landlords in Java.
In terms of culture, ‘Kejawen’ culture developed, it was the product of acculturation among native culture. Hindu-Buddhist culture, and Islamic culture. In addition, there was a ritual ceremony called ‘Grebeg’, a ceremony to praise the spirits of ancerstors by giving an offering in the form of rice mounds decorated with vegetables.
The ceremony had actually existed in the era of Majaphit Kingdom, but then it was revived during the period of Islamic mataram in which it was celebrated on Idul Fitri holiday (Grebeg Syawal) and in the month of Rabi’ul Awal or the third month in Islamic calender (Grebeg Maulud).
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